# How to write INSERT IF NOT EXISTS queries in standard SQL

If necessary, INSERT IF NOT EXISTS queries can be written in a single atomic statement, eliminating the need for a transaction, and without violating standards. In this article I’ll explain several ways to write such queries in a platform-independent way.

### Motivation

Suppose a table of urls has a unique index on the url:

create table urls(url varchar(200) primary key);

Now suppose I want to insert a row in a single statement, without using a transaction, and I only want the row to get inserted if the url isn’t already in the table. I don’t want any warnings or errors. I just want to issue a normal INSERT statement and know the url is now in the table.

Standard SQL provides no means of doing this. There’s no syntax like this:

insert if not exists into url(url) values(...)

In Microsoft SQL Server, I can use an IF statement:

if not exists (select * from url where url = ...)
insert into url...

This has to be wrapped in a transaction to avoid a race condition, though. Otherwise someone might insert a row between the time I check the table and when I insert the row. I want to do this in a single statement, without a transaction.

### Several solutions

One solution is to use a mutex table:

insert into urls(url)
select '/blog/'
from mutex
left outer join urls
on urls.url = '/blog/'
where mutex.i = 1 and urls.url is null;

There are more flexible variations on this technique. Suppose there is no unique index on the url column. If desired, it is possible to insert several values in a single statement by changing the WHERE clause:

insert into urls(url)
select '/blog/'
from mutex
left outer join urls
on urls.url = '/blog/'
where mutex.i < 5 and urls.url is null;

Now suppose the requirements specify up to three duplicate entries in the table, and each insert should add a single row. It is possible to insert a row at a time while enforcing the requirement with the following query:

insert into urls(url)
select '/blog/'
from mutex
left outer join urls
on urls.url = '/blog/'
where mutex.i = 1
group by urls.url
having count(*) < 3;

This query shows the input to the INSERT statement:

select '/blog/', count(*)
from mutex
left outer join urls
on urls.url = '/blog/'
where mutex.i = 1
group by urls.url;

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Edit 2006-02-26 See also my article on using this and other techniques to do flexible INSERT and UPDATE statements in MySQL.

I'm Baron Schwartz, the founder and CEO of VividCortex. I am the author of High Performance MySQL and many open-source tools for performance analysis, monitoring, and system administration. I contribute to various database communities such as Oracle, PostgreSQL, Redis and MongoDB.