# Browser variations in RegExp.exec()

IE6, Firefox 1.5 and Opera 8.5 handle regular expressions slightly differently. I analyzed them and learned some interesting things about the browsers. For this article, I’m using abcde as the input, and /abc|d(e)/g as the regular expression. The expression should match twice, and the second match should capture the letter “e” because it’s in a capturing subexpression.

### Properties of match results

Calling RegExp.prototype.exec() with a global regular expression returns an Array object with some extra properties. IE and Opera don’t quite agree with ECMA-262 – they add extra properties and don’t create properties that should exist (Firefox gets it right).

In case you don’t know the ins and outs of JavaScript regexes, there is a subtlety about capturing subexpressions and global regular expressions. exec actually only looks for one match even though the expression is global, but sets the index at which the match happened. If I call it again, it keeps looking from where it left off, so I can loop through the successive matches. Each time the result is an array containing the current match, plus the captures and information about where the match occurred. As usual, index 0 of the array contains the text of the entire match, index 1 contains the first captured subexpression, and so on.

Here’s what I get when I call /abc|d(e)/g.exec("abcde") twice in a row on the browsers in question:

I got the results with a for/in loop, like so:

var re = /abc|d(e)/g;
var result = re.exec("abcde");
for (var prop in result) {
...

Here are the differences:

• Opera doesn’t enumerate over the first captured subexpression in the first result. In Firefox, it exists without a value (has the special value undefined), and in IE it exists with a value – the empty string.
• IE adds the proprietary lastIndex property to the result.

### Subexpressions

I said Opera doesn’t enumerate over the property named “1″ in the first result. According to the spec, the property named “1″ should still exist. Opera knows the property should exist, as I proved by examining the length property. Its value is 2 in all browsers, which is correct as specified by section 15.10.6.2 of the spec:

Performs a regular expression match of string against the regular expression and returns an Array object containing the results of the match, or null if the string did not match… Let n be the length of r’s captures array. (This is the same value as 15.10.2.1′s NCapturingParens.)

So, the length of the array should be 2 even in the first match, because the length of the array depends only on the number of capturing subexpressions in the pattern – so the browsers are doing the right thing.

If the property exists, Opera should enumerate it in the for/in loop. The spec is clear about what properties are enumerable (section 15.2.4.7), and it never says such a property should get the dontEnum attribute, so I think Opera’s behavior is incorrect. In fact, I’m pretty sure Opera is actually never creating the property. I ran some tests with an Array and set one of the properties to undefined. Opera still enumerates it, so it’s not as though Opera doesn’t enumerate properties that have no value. I think Opera is setting length to 2, but never creating properties for capturing subexpressions that don’t participate in the match. Technically this does not violate the spec’s instructions on an Array’s length property, but it is suspicious.

The moral of the story is you shouldn’t use a for/in loop when iterating through subexpressions. Just iterate from 0 through length minus one.

I take exception to IE giving the capture a value. The subexpression doesn’t capture anything and doesn’t participate in the match, so it should not have a value – not even the empty string or null. I suppose this one is up for debate, but that’s my personal opinion.

### IE’s lastIndex property

Technically, this property shouldn’t be there; it should be a property of the global RegExp object in ECMA-262, or the regex itself in later versions of JavaScript (I have no idea why you’d make it a property of a global object; that seems like it would cause all sorts of stupid bugs, so I think the way IE does it is probably a lot smarter than the spec).

### Other stuff

I spent a lot of time messing with the various browsers to see if I could find obscure bugs enumerating properties that don’t exist, setting a value and then unsetting it on subsequent calls, and so forth. The good news is I didn’t find any more bugs (though they could still exist!), and I found that the quasi-bugs discussed above are really trivial.

I'm Baron Schwartz, the founder and CEO of VividCortex. I am the author of High Performance MySQL and many open-source tools for performance analysis, monitoring, and system administration. I contribute to various database communities such as Oracle, PostgreSQL, Redis and MongoDB.