# How to escalate privileges in MySQL

In MySQL, privileges are stored in tables in the mysql database, so if I have UPDATE privileges to that database, it’s easy to update my own privileges. For an example of what the desired privileges should be, run the following query:

select * from user where User='root';

The Grant_priv column is what I’m interested in. I just update that value to ‘Y’ for my user, execute FLUSH PRIVILEGES, log out, and log back in. I’m all-powerful! I can grant myself any privileges I want, grant other people privileges, and so on. Of course, I could do that before by updating the system tables anyway, but now I can do it more conveniently with the built-in administration commands.

This isn’t just a weakness in the design of MySQL; Microsoft SQL Server 2000 also stores privileges in system tables (one of the reasons SQL injection attacks are so easy on an improperly configured instance of SQL Server 2000).

grant all on *.* to 'xaprb'@'%' identified by 'password';

If someone tells you that’s the way to add a user, don’t listen! You need to specify the databases and/or tables to which the user should have access. Otherwise, the user will have UPDATE permission in the system tables, and is all-powerful.

I'm Baron Schwartz, the founder and CEO of VividCortex. I am the author of High Performance MySQL and many open-source tools for performance analysis, monitoring, and system administration. I contribute to various database communities such as Oracle, PostgreSQL, Redis and MongoDB.