Secure your accounts and devices

This is a public service announcement. Many people I know are not taking important steps necessary to secure their online accounts and devices (computers, cellphones) against malicious people and software. It’s a matter of time before something seriously harmful happens to them.

This blog post will urge you to use higher security than popular advice you’ll hear. It really, really, really is necessary to use strong measures to secure your digital life. The technology being used to attack you is very advanced, operates at a large scale, and you probably stand to lose much more than you realize.

You’re also likely not as good at being secure as you think you are. If you’re like most people, you don’t take some important precautions, and you overestimate the strength and effectiveness of security measures you do use.

Password Security

The simplest and most effective way to dramatically boost your online security is use a password storage program, or password safe. You need to stop making passwords you can remember and make long, random passwords on websites. The only practical way to do this is to use a password safe.

Why? Because if you can remember the password, it’s trivially hackable. For example, passwords like 10qp29wo38ei47ru can be broken instantly. Anything you can feasibly remember is just too weak.

And, any rule you set for yourself that requires self-discipline will be violated, because you’re lazy. You need to make security easier so that you automatically do things more securely. A password safe is the best way to do that, by far. A good rule of thumb for most people is that you should not try to know your own passwords, except the password to your password safe. (People with the need to be hyper-secure will take extraordinary measures, but those aren’t practical or necessary for most of us.)

I use 1Password. Others I know of are LastPass and KeePass Password Safe. I personally wouldn’t use any others, because lesser-known ones are more likely to be malware.

It’s easy to share a password safe’s data across devices, and make a backup of it, by using a service such as Dropbox. The password safe’s files are encrypted, so the contents will not be at risk even if the file syncing service is compromised for some reason. (Use a strong password to encrypt your password safe!)

It’s important to note that online passwords are different from the password you use to log into your personal computer. Online passwords are much more exposed to brute-force, large-scale hacking attacks. By contrast, your laptop probably isn’t going to be subjected to a brute-force password cracking attack, because attackers usually need physical access to the computer to do that. This is not a reason to use a weak password for your computer; I’m just trying to illustrate how important it is to use really long, random passwords for websites and other online services, because they are frequent targets of brute-force attacks.

Here are some other important rules for password security.

Strong, Memorable Passwords Without a Safe

Some people I know have a set of heuristics to generate a password for each service. “Take the first two letters, prepend the year of signup, reverse the last two letters…” These passwords are a) weak, b) not easy to change since the heuristics don’t change, c) easy to figure out if someone gets one of your passwords. In other words, if someone is able to steal your password to, say, Amazon, and figures out from the password no2014amaz what your heuristic is, they’ll be able to log into lots of other services with a little guesswork.

If you feel unusually vigorous, you could try out this person’s mental encryption scheme, but I see a major weakness with that: it doesn’t allow for changing your password, since your password is a hashed scheme of the service name. I also think the passwords it generates are less secure than some people have opined them to be, just because they’re short. It’s interesting but clearly impractical for most people. A password safe is much better.

Another alternative, which I did not know about when I wrote this post, is a unique physical device to generate passwords. Two that I’m aware of are QWERTY Cards and PasswordCard.


These have some weaknesses as well, but there are workarounds:

  1. They can only generate one password per site, so you can’t change your password or have multiple logins per site. Workaround: use different secret words to “salt” the passwords over time, and remember which one you’re currently using. If you can’t log into a site, try past secret words. Workaround 2: get a new card and keep the old one. Workaround 3: add a “version” to the site; for example you might add v1 to the site name or company name. You could also append a username so you can have multiple logins, e.g. appending “personal” or “work” or similar.
  2. They generate strong passwords, which some sites may not accept. For example, some sites have length limits or forbid “special characters” in passwords. Workaround: just use the first N characters of the password. Workaround 2: translate all “special characters” to something non-special, such as an underscore. Neither is foolproof, since you’ll have to remember this site as a special exception, but it may be workable.

Avoiding Insecure Sites

The limitations on length and special characters that I mentioned in the previous paragraph are red flags that your password is not secured properly in their servers.

Do not trust such sites. If you’re forced to use them, do so, but otherwise I would suggest finding another way to do your business.

Another red flag is when you reset your password and instead of forcing you to create a new one, they a) send your existing one (which means they stored it, which they should never do) or b) generate a new one and send it to you in email.

Use Two-Factor Auth

Two-factor authentication (aka 2-step login) is a much stronger mechanism for account security than a password alone. It uses a “second factor” (something you physically possess) in addition to the common “first factor” (something you know – a password) to verify that you are the person authorized to access the account.

Typically, the login process with two-factor authentication looks like this:

Two-factor auth has a bunch of special ways to handle other common scenarios, such as devices that can’t display the dialog to ask for the 6-digit code, or what if you lose your cellphone, or what if you’re away from your own computer and don’t have your cellphone. Nonetheless, these edge cases are easy to handle. For example, you can get recovery codes for when you lose or don’t have your cellphone. You should store these – where else? – in your password safe.

There seems to be a perception that lots of people think two-factor auth is not convenient. I disagree. I’ve never found it inconvenient, and I use two-factor auth a lot. And I’ve never met these people, whoever they are, who think two-factor auth is such a high burden. The worst thing that happens to me is that I sometimes have to get out of my chair and get my phone from another room to log in.

Unfortunately, most websites don’t support two-factor authentication. Fortunately, many of the most popular and valuable services do, including Facebook, Google, Paypal, Dropbox, LinkedIn, Twitter, and most of the other services that you probably use which are most likely to get compromised. Here is a list of services with two-factor auth, with instructions on how to set it up for each one.

Please enable two-factor authentication if it is supported! I can’t tell you how many of my friends and family have had their Gmail, Facebook, Twitter, and other services compromised. Please don’t let this happen to you! It could do serious harm to you – worse than a stolen credit card.

Another suggestion I’ve heard, for websites and services that don’t offer strong security and for which you don’t want or need to remember or store a password, is to just reset your password every single time you log in. In this way, your email account effectively becomes external authentication, and every password becomes single-use. You click “forgot password,” check your email, click on the link there, enter some random gibberish (best generated with pwgen 50 or similar) for your “new password” that you’re never going to use again, and log in.

Secure Your Devices

Sooner or later someone is going to get access to one of your devices – tablet, phone, laptop, thumb drive. I’ve never had a phone or laptop lost or stolen myself, but it’s a matter of time. I’ve known a lot of people in this situation. One of my old bosses, for example, forgot a laptop in the seat pocket of an airplane, and someone took it and didn’t return it.

And how many times have you heard about some government worker leaving a laptop at the coffee shop and suddenly millions of people’s Social Security numbers are stolen?

Think about your phone. If someone stole my phone and it weren’t protected, they’d have access to a bunch of my accounts, contact lists, email, and a lot of other stuff I really, really do not want them messing with. If you’re in the majority of people who leave your phone completely unsecured, think about the consequences for a few minutes. Someone getting access to all the data and accounts on your phone could probably ruin your life for a long time if they wanted to.

All of this is easily preventable. Given that one or more of your devices will someday certainly end up in the hands of someone who may have bad intentions, I think it’s only prudent to take some basic measures:

External Links and Resources

Things that don’t help

Finally, here are some techniques that aren’t as useful as you might have been told.


Here is a summary of the most valuable steps you can take to protect yourself:

Do you have any other suggestions? Please use the comments below to add your thoughts.