One of the most common questions SQL beginners have is why
NULL values “don’t work right” in
WHERE clauses. In this article I’ll explain it in a way I hope will make sense and be easy to remember.
If you’re new to SQL and have a hard time understanding this article, I encourage you to keep puzzling over it until the light comes on. I had to do that myself (and I’ve had to think hard about it to write this article), and I’ve seen a number of people learn SQL.
NULLs always seem to be an important sticking point.
The query that won’t work right
Here are two common queries that just don’t work:
select * from table where column = null; select * from table where column <> null;
They both return no rows! Countless SQL veterans have tried to explain this one to beginners. The beginner usually thinks the first row should return rows where
NULL. The veteran then points out that
NULL is never equal to anything. The beginner then thinks, “if
NULL isn’t equal to anything, then ‘
WHERE COLUMN IS NOT EQUAL TO NULL’ is always true, so the second query should return all results!” The second
WHERE clause is the logical opposite of the first, right? Right? Sadly, no it’s not.
The real problem: a language trap
The beginner has fallen into a language trap, which the experienced programmer probably set by saying “
NULL is never equal to anything.” That statement seems to imply “
NULL is NOT EQUAL TO.” Unfortunately, that’s wrong. Not only is
NULL not equal to anything, it’s also not unequal to anything. This is where the language is confusing.
The truth is, saying anything with the words “equal” or “not equal” is a trap when discussing
NULLs, because there is no concept of equality or inequality, greater than or less than with
NULLs. Instead, one can only say “is” or “is not” (without the word “equal”) when discussing
The right way to think about
The correct way to understand
NULL is that it is not a value. Not “this is a
NULL value” but “this
NULL is not a value.” Everything either is a value, or it isn’t. When something is a value, it is “1,” or “hello,” or “green,” or “$5.00” etc—but when something isn’t a value, it just isn’t anything at all. SQL represents “this has no value” by the special non-value
NULL. When someone says “the
NULL value,” one should mentally disagree, because there’s no such thing.
NULL is the complete, total absence of any value whatsoever.
What do you get when you compare a value to
NULL. Every time. The result of comparing anything to
NULL, even itself, is always, always
NULL. A comparison to
NULL is never true or false. Since
NULL can never be equal to any value, it can never be unequal, either.
Sometimes people have difficulty understanding why a comparison to
NULL can never be either true or false. Here’s an informal proof that may help:
Given the following predicates,
NULLis not a value
- No value can ever be equal to a non-value
Here’s the proof by contradiction: Pretend for a moment that
NULL is unequal to a value—say a real number, excluding infinity and negative infinity. I’ll choose an example number, say 5.
- Assume that
NULL <> 5.
- That is,
NULL <> 5is a true expression (comparison operations are boolean, true or false).
- That means “
NULL < 5 or NULL > 5” is true, since I’m dealing with finite, real numbers; if it’s not equal, it must be bigger or smaller.
- Therefore, there exists a real number equal to
NULL; it’s either less than 5 or greater than 5.
- That’s a contradiction, because I took it as a given that no value can be equal to
NULL is neither equal to a value nor unequal to it, so any comparison involving
NULL is neither true nor false. The result of a comparison involving
NULL is not a boolean value—it is a non-value. You just can’t compare something that exists with something that doesn’t exist.
It has to be this way, because if a comparison to a non-value had a defined value, every query could be rewritten to return a wrong result. It would be possible to transform expressions to equivalent expressions that gave the opposite answer, and so on.
The correct way to write the queries
Instead of using boolean comparison operators such as less-than and greater-than, equal-to and not-equal-to, these queries must be written with the special comparison operator
select * from table where column is null; select * from table where column is not null;
IS NULL operator tests whether a value is null or not null, and returns a boolean.
The truth is, I lied
I’m trying to write this article to help people understand how non-values work in queries, so I’m being generous with the truth.
Since computers only work with things that exist, non-existence isn’t really possible, so
NULLs must internally be implemented as some value, somewhere—even if it’s a value that indicates another value isn’t a value (huh?).
I’m glossing over something about comparisons to
NULLs result in tri-valued logic; booleans are no longer just
FALSE, but can be
UNKNOWN, too. The result of comparing
UNKNOWN, which is not the same thing as
NULL, but that’s just semantic differences and deep mathematical pondering, and doesn’t materially affect how you write queries.
MySQL, for example, implements
NULL, though it it isn’t perfectly consistent about it—try these queries:
select unknown; select null; select true; select false; select null is unknown; select false is null; select true is null; select unknown is null;
NULL is neither equal nor unequal to anything, and I promise you will always be safe. It’s no use to get really picky about the fine points of
UNKNOWN and all that.
A puzzler with
Someone posted a comment on the MySQL manual page about extensions to the GROUP BY clause, and I think it’s interesting to discuss here. The query is a way to count subsets within a group:
select shoeStyle, count(color) as Count, count(color = 'red' OR NULL) as redCount, count(color = 'green' OR NULL) as greenCount, count(color = 'blue' OR NULL) as blueCount from bowlingShoes group by shoeStyle;
The comment’s author said “
OR NULL is necessary, or you will just get a count of all rows in the group.” Why is this?
OR NULL is omitted, the result of the expression is a boolean,
FALSE, which are actual values. The
COUNT function counts any value that exists, not whether something is
FALSE, so the query is behaving correctly.
On the other hand, the result of the expression
color = 'green' OR NULL is either
NULL. Boolean expressions are short-circuited when they’re evaluated. As soon as the first sub-expression in a logical
OR expression is true, the whole result is true, so when the color is green, the expression is
COUNT-able value. If the color isn’t green, the expression becomes
FALSE OR NULL, which is
NULL, of course—not a
You can see this in action with the following queries:
mysql> select true or null; +--------------+ | true or null | +--------------+ | 1 | +--------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec) mysql> select false or null; +---------------+ | false or null | +---------------+ | NULL | +---------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)